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Essays on Science

Nuclear / Particle Physics Effects Of The Atomic Bombs On Hiroshima And Nagasaki
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... as fission. The only two atoms suitable for fissioning are the uranium isotope U-235 and the plutonium isotope Pu-239 (Outlaw Labs). Fission occurs when a neutron, a subatomic particle with no electrical charge, strikes the nucleus of one of these isotopes and causes it to split apart. When the nucleus is split, a large amount of energy is produced, and more free neutrons are also released. These neutrons then in turn strike other atoms, which causes more energy to be released. If this process is repeated, a self-sustaining chain reaction will occur, and it is this chain reaction that causes the atomic bomb to have its destructive power (World Book, 1990). This chai ...

Mexican Grey Wolf
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... lowers testosterone levels, and damages the lungs. Most of these claims, however, have been unreplicated in humans or have been contradicted by other work. This section will address each of these reported negative side-effects. Various studies have claimed that cannabis destroys brain cells. However, several other studies found no structural or neurochemical atrophy in the brain at all. Furthermore, it should be noted that Heath's work was sharply criticized for avoiding safeguards of bias and reporting "changes" that occur normally in the mammalian brain. Wu et al. found a correlation between cannabis use and low sperm counts in human males. This is misleading ...

Copper And Molybdenum Deposits In The United States
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... more useful metals such as bronze (copper+tin; 2500 B.C.) and brass (copper+zinc; 0 A.D.). The growth of copper production in the United States has been a relatively recent occurrence. North American French explorers knew of sources of native copper in the region of Lake Superior and the area natives had copper jewelry and ornamentation. Earnest copper mining began in Simsbury, Connecticut about 1709 and copper was actually exported to England after a source was discovered in New Jersey around 1719. In later times domestic copper resources did not satisfy national needs until the discovery of gold in California shifted the focus of mineral exploration westward ...

Do UFOs Exist?
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... as unexplained. Some people claim that they have been abducted by extraterrestrials. A Harvard professor has taken these "abductees" and puts them in a hypnotic trans. Under hypnosis, sometimes weeping and shouting with agony and terror, they recover buried memories of alien encounters. There has never been physical proof of any abduction yet to be provided. The Roswell incident is now generally regarded as one of the most important UFO events in history, an extensive review of the UFO literature of the 1950s finds no mention of it beyond the first press accounts in early July 1947. The only know reference to it as a UFO crash was in a 1955 lecture by broa ...

Venomous Creatures Of The West Pacific
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... fall into two categories invertebrates (animals without backbones) and vertebrates (animals with backbones.) These animals are further broken down into phylums and classes. ECHINODERMS Echinoderms are marine invertebrate animals of the phylum Echinodrmata, having external skeletons of calcareous plates just under the skin, no head, and a water vascular-system with tube feet. Echinoderms are radially symmetrical, lack specialized ecretory organs, and reproduce sexually. Echinoderms have the ability to regenerate lost or injured body parts. Starfish: Starfishes are free-living echinoderms that have a flat, star-shaped or pentagonal body, usually with a cont ...

Atmospheric Circulation And More
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... air is cooled and it floats back down to the equator where the process is repeated. Another major contributing factor to the circulation of the air is due to the subtropical highs. These highs like the ITCZ migrate during the different seasons. The idealized belt model is a great representation of the general circulation of the atmosphere. The equatorial belt of variable winds and calms ranges from 5 degrees north to 5 degrees south. This wind belt is characterized by weak winds and low pressure from the inter tropical convergence zone. As you go further north or south you encounter the Hadley Cells. Hadley cell circulation ...

Anabolic Steroids Just The Facts
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... so far has been ineffective. The fact is that anabolic steroid use in this country is still growing and will continue to do so unless a new solution is devised. The vast popularity of anabolic steroids is due to their powerful strength and muscle building properties. Strength and portrayed strength (a large muscular physique) are two factors that are directly related to the inherent need that man has to exert dominance over other males. This can also be verbally, intellectually, physically, and aesthetically. In our society we have always praised the athletes that achieve the most amazing physical feats or that have achieved cosmetic perfection. Lets face it, hav ...

A Brief History Of Clocks: From Thales To Ptolemy
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... version of the common water clock, the Clepsydra was quite popular in ancient Greece. However, the development of stereography by Hipparchos in 150 BC. radically altered physical representations of the heavens. By integrating stereography with the Clepsydra and the celestial sphere, humanity was capable of creating more practical and accurate devices for measuring time—the anaphoric clock and the astrolabe. Although Ptolemy was familiar with both the anaphoric clock and the astrolabe, I believe that the development of the anaphoric clock preceded the development of the astrolabe. The earliest example, in western culture, of a celestial sphere is attributed to the pr ...

Lasers 2
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... wave. Because light waves are of much higher frequencies than radio waves, the have a higher information carrying capacity. In beams of light,individual photon waves are not moving along together because they are not being emitted at the same instant but instead in random short bursts. Such beams are called incoherent. The process for laser action, was first proposed by Albert Einstein in 1917. The working principles of lasers were outlined by the American physicists Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Charles Hard Townes in their 1958 patent application. The patent was granted but was later challenged by the American physicist and engineer Gordon Gould. In 1960 the A ...

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... rather than for psychoactive purposes. During the prohibition, marijuana was widely used because of the scarcity of alcohol. Prohibition was repealed after just thirteen years while the prohibition against marijuana lasted for more than seventy five years. This double standard may have resulted from the wishes of those in power. Alcohol prohibition struck directly at tens of millions of Americans of all ages, including many of societies most powerful members. Marijuana prohibition threatened far fewer Americans, and they had relatively little influence in the districts of power. Only the prohibition of marijuana, which some sixty million Americans have violat ...

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